Aashray urology institute

Kidney Cancer

Kidney cancer also called renal cancer develops when kidney cells change and grow rapidly forming tumors/masses. Kidney cancer is effectively treated at Aashray via treatment options such as Active Surveillance, Ablation, Partial Nephrectomy, & Radical Nephrectomy.
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What Are Kidneys?

Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a small fist located above the waist on both sides of the spine. The main function of the kidneys is to filter blood. Kidneys also produce hormones that help control blood pressure, the production of red blood cells, and other bodily functions.

kidney anatomy img
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What Is Kidney Cancer?

Kidney cancer also called renal cancer develops when kidney cells change and grow rapidly forming tumors/masses. Some kidney masses are benign (not cancerous) and some are malignant (cancerous).

kidney cancer
Image Source: National Institute of Diabetes
and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National
Institutes of Health.

What Are The Types Of Kidney Cancer?

Following are the main types of kidney cancer:

  1. Renal Cell Carcinomas (RCC): RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer that develops in the part of the kidney where filtering takes place. It usually grows in a kidney as a single tumor or sometimes as two or more tumors.
  2. Benign Kidney Tumors: These tumors are non-cancerous in nature and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, these tumors can grow large and cause problems.
  3. Wilms Tumors: These tumors are most commonly found in children. 

What Are The Causes And Risk Factors Of Kidney Cancer?

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What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Cancer?

Kidney cancer usually doesn't show any signs and symptoms in the early stages. The signs and symptoms may develop in a later period of time which includes:

  1. Blood in the urine (Hematuria)
  2. Pain in the lower back on one side that doesn't go away
  3. Loss of appetite
  4. Unexplained weight loss 
  5. Anemia
  6. Fever
symptoms of kidney cancer

How Kidney Cancer Is Diagnosed?

Your doctor will recommend you the following tests and procedure to diagnose kidney cancer:

What Are The Grades And Stages Of Kidney Cancer?

A tumor grade tells how aggressive the cancer cells are in your body. A tumor stage tells how much cancer has spread. Grades 1 through 4 show progressing severity with “1” being the lowest level and “4” the highest. A higher grade and more advanced stage usually comes with larger tumor size and more aggressive tumors. Tumor size helps in assessing the risk for cancer that is developing. 

TNM System for Kidney Cancer: 

Kidney cancer is staged using the tumor node metastases (TNM) system.

  1. A tumor (T):

    How large is the primary tumor? Where is it located?

    1. T1: Tumor 7.0 cm (about 2 .8 inches) or less, confined to the kidney
    2. T1a: Tumor 4.0 cm (about 1 .6 inches) or less, confined to the kidney
    3. T1b: Tumor 4.0-7.0 cm, confined to the kidney
    4. T2: Tumor greater than 7.0 cm, confined to the kidney
    5. T2a: Tumor greater than 7.0 cm and less than 10 .0 cm, confined to the kidney
    6. T2b: Tumor greater than 10 cm (about 3 .9 inches), confined to the kidney
    7. T3: Tumor grows into major veins but not into the adrenal gland and not beyond Gerota’s fascia
    8. T4: Tumor reaches beyond Gerota’s fascia (including the adrenal gland). This is not a localized tumor.

  2. Node (N):

    Has the tumor spread to the lymph nodes? If so, where and how many?

    1. N0: No regional lymph node metastasis
    2. N1: Metastasis in regional lymph node(s)

  3. Metastasis (M):

    Has cancer spread to other parts of the body? If so, where and how much?

    1. M0: No distant metastasis
    2. M1: Distant metastasis

Stage I and II:

These tumors include cancers of any size that are confined to the kidney.

Stage III:

In this stage, tumors are either locally invasive (T3) or involve lymph nodes (N1).

Stage IV:

In this stage, tumors have spread beyond the kidney into organs nearby (T4) or distant metastases (M1).

stages of kidney cancer

What Treatment Options Are Available For Kidney Cancer?

The course of the treatment is decided when the patient and doctor together discuss the options and go through a process called “ shared decision making.” Treatment options are decided based on several factors such as the cell type and stage of cancer, possible side effects, and the patient’s health, etc. Following are the four treatment options that are available for kidney cancer:

What To Expect During Follow-Up?

The follow-ups are especially important in cases of cancers to manage side-effects and monitor the overall health, recovery progress as well as check for any signs that cancer has come back. So, follow-up care and active monitoring are essential. These include the same tests used to diagnose the kidney mass/tumor such as regular physical examinations, medical tests, and routine blood & urine tests. 

Cancer rehabilitation and survivorship care are recommended, and this could mean any of a wide range of services that help people regain control over many aspects of their lives and remain as independent and productive as possible and these services may include physical therapy, career counseling, pain management, nutritional planning, financial counseling, and/or emotional counseling.

Book Appointment

If you have any questions or doubts about any treatment for Kidney Cancer or any other treatment available at Aashray Urology Institute, book a consultation with Dr. Ashit Shah and he will expertly guide you on the same. 
Book Appointment
Dr. Ashit Shah

Dr. Ashit Shah

Meet the doctor

Dr. Ashit Shah

MB, MS, DNB(Urology), DLU(France)

Dr. Ashit Shah

Dr. Ashit Shah

Dr. Ashit Shah is a senior consultant Urologist heading Aashray Urology Institute. After completing his M.B.B.S. and M.S. in General Surgery, he was awarded Diplomate of National Board (D.N.B.) in Genito-Urinary Surgery by the National Board of Examinations, New Delhi. He earned his Diplomate in Laparoscopic Urology from Louis Pasteur University, Strasbourg, France in the year 2006. Dr. Shah has a special interest in Endo-Urology, especially Urolithiasis i.e. Urinary Stone Disease. Having spent more than 27 years in the profession of Urology, he has experience of over 75,000 urological consultations and more than 15,000 surgeries. Being counted amongst the torch bearers of ethical and transparent medical practice in the city of Vadodara, he was conferred ‘Inspiring Urologist Award’ for the year 2019 by The Economic Times.

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